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Resume - Человек и биологически активные вещества

Оглавление
Человек и биологически активные вещества
Биологически активные вещества пищи
Биологически активные вещества и профессиональная деятельность человека
Лекарства для здоровых - профилактика
Лекарства для здоровых — регуляция рождаемости
Биологически активные вещества и старость
В трудных и экстремальных условиях
Научный прогноз
Некоторые обобщения
Обобщения - лекарства для здоровых
Обобщения - новый раздел фармакологии
Заключение
Витамин С, простуда и ортомолекулярная медицина профессора Полинга
Resume

If we consider all the biologically active substances (BAS) that man consumes during his lifetime, medicines (a particular instance of BAS) would constitute a very minor portion. A vast flow of BAS enters the organism with tea and coffee, fruit and vegetables, spices and condiments, wine and non-alcoholic drinks. There is no absolute distinction between food (which Hippocrates termed as «a cure from hunger») and medicines. Way back in the 11th century, Avicenna, the Islamic physician and philosopher, wrote of «medical foodstuffs» and «food medicines». «Man invariably tries to find edibles that would suit him best at times of illness» (Karasik). In such cases, «the pharmacological aspect of nutrition» (Laborit) becomes the subject of research to result in relevant monographs (Sepeika, Food Pharmacology, 1968).
Yet, medicines per se. being an inseparalle part of human culture, are beginning to play an increasingly vital role. Medicines have eliminated or lessened the danger of numerous diseases to lead to large-scale successes in surgery; they have also ensured reliable contraceptives and contributed to higher life expectancy.
An important point to understand is that there can be no precise distinction between healthy and ill people. From Galen to the present day, human beings have been characterized by three states, namely healthy, ill and intermediate (pre-nosological). The last state is typical of the greater majority of people, who sometimes live and work in this condition all their lives.
The human race will always tackle challenging problems and fight hardships. Now this means that cure should be rendered not only to millions of sick, but to hundreds of millions of those, who live and work in this special «third» state. Cosmonauts, for instance, being absolutely healthy as they are, also need drugs.
From this viewpoint, it is advisable te distinguish two chapters in pharmacology, namely pharmacotherapy and pharmacosanation. Now pharmacosanation is the part of pharmacology, that deals with the effect of BAS entering the organism with food or medicines to increase stability against various unfavourable effects and to promote prophylaxis, as well as normalization of adversely changed functions in the organism.
Pharmacosanation may, in turn, be subdivided into the following three branches depending on the purposes and effects of BAS with regard to healthy people.

  1. Alimentary pharmacosanation. This branch considers the role of BAS entering the organism with food products. The subjects of paramount importance, in this case, are tea, coffee, sugar with its admixtures and substituents, non-alcoholic beverages and juices, fruit, vegetables and lettuce plants, condiments and spices, wines and their different distillation products. The same concerns the use and overuse of spirits, tobacco smoking, betel chewing, etc.
  2. Medicai pharmacosanation. This branch examines the beneficial and detrimental effects of BAS on memory and studies, eyesight and hearing, behaviour and professional activities. Medical pharmacosanation also deals with the role of BAS (medical preparations inclusive) for prevention of infectious and non-infec- tious diseases (influenza, catarrhal diseases, atherosclerosis, dental caries, etc.). It also involves the use of medicines during contraception, uncomplicated pregnancy, childbirth, the postnatal period and child-feeding. Beyond doubt, BAS play a prominent role during rehabilitation, and increase the active period of life.
  3. Special pharmacosanation. This branch directs the action of BAS on people, who find thermelves in difficult or extreme conditions during lengthy, expeditions; in alpine, underwater or atmospheric environments; in the north and (or) tropics; and in space.

The ideas of pharmacosanation and the need to distinguish and develop this new chapter of pharmacology are in full agreement with current scientific forecasts in medicine, which predict a constantly increasing use of BAS and or medicines by healthy people.
Hopefully, the aforesaid will, to some extent, complement the discussion on the future pathways of pharmacology started in «The evolution of pharmacology» (1947) by my teacher Nikolai Lazarev, to whom I dedicate this work.



 
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